This entry represents the gamma subunit of quinohemoprotein amine dehydrogenases (QHNDH), enzymes produced in the periplasmic space of certain Gram-negative bacteria, such as Paracoccus denitrificans and Pseudomonas putida, in response to primary amines, including n-butylamine and benzylamine. QHNDH catalyses the oxidative deamination of a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic amines through formation of a Schiff-base intermediate involving one of the quinone O atoms . Catalysis requires the presence of a novel redox cofactor, cysteine tryptophylquinone (CTQ). CTQ is derived from the post-translational modification of specific residues, which involves the oxidation of the indole ring of a tryptophan residue to form tryptophylquinone, followed by covalent cross-linking with a cysteine residue . There is one CTQ per subunit in QHNDH. In addition to CTQ, two haem c cofactors are present in QHNDH that mediate the transfer of the substrate-derived electrons from CTQ to an external electron acceptor, cytochrome c-550 [12974623, 12427036].
QHNDH is a heterotrimer of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The alpha and beta subunits contain signal peptides necessary for the translocation of QHNDH to the periplasm. The alpha subunit is a 4-domain protein that contains the di-haem cytochrome c; the beta subunit is a 7-bladed beta-propeller that provides part of the active site; and the small, catalytic gamma subunit contains the novel cross-linked CTQ cofactor, in addition to additional thioester cross-links between Cys and Asp/Glu residues that encage CTQ. The gamma subunit assumes a globular secondary structure with two short alpha-helices having many turns and bends .