This entry represents the N-terminal domain of YopH protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). This domain has a compact structure composed of four alpha-helices and two beta-hairpins. Helices alpha-1 and alpha-3 are parallel to each other and antiparallel to helices alpha-2 and alpha-4. This domain targets YopH for secretion from the bacterium and translocation into eukaryotic cells, and has phosphotyrosyl peptide-binding activity, allowing for recognition of p130Cas and paxillin . YopH from Yersinia sp. is essential for pathogenesis, as it allows the bacteria to resist phagocytosis by host macrophages through its ability to dephosphorylate host proteins, thereby interfering with the host signalling process. Yersinia has one of the most active PTP enzymes known. YopH contains a loop of ten amino acids (the WPD loop) that covers the entrance of the active site of the enzyme during substrate binding .
A homologous domain is found in YscM (Yop secretion protein M), which acts as a Yop protein translocation protein. Several Yop proteins are involved in pathogenesis. YscM is produced by the virulence operon virC, which encodes thirteen genes, yscA-M . Transcription of the virC operon was subjected to the same regulation as the yop genes.