The attachment proteins in adenoviruses and reoviruses display structural similarity, indicating similar cell-surface receptor binding strategies, even though these viruses differ from one another in design, capsid composition and genome composition [10553913, 11782420]. The dsDNA adenoviruses are responsible for diseases such as pneumonia, cystitis, conjunctivitis and diarrhoea, all of which can be fatal to patients who are immunocompromised, while the dsRNA reoviruses are responsible for mild respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.
The attachment proteins play a pivotal role in disease patterns through their selective recognition of cell-surface receptors. The fibre protein and the sigma 1 protein act as attachment proteins in adenoviruses and reoviruses, respectively. The attachment proteins are homo-trimeric, and contain a long, thin central shaft, or tail domain, and a C-terminal head domain that plays an important role in cell attachment. The structure of the shaft or tail domain reveals a triple beta-spiral that is formed by interlocking beta-hairpin repeat units.